Uremic Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy refers to a disease or disorder that can affect your brain. It happens when changes happen to how your brain or body works. It manifests as confusion, sleepiness, muscle cramps, poor memory, inability to concentrate, personality changes, …etc. Encephalopathies have many types and causes including high blood pressure, heart disease, liver disease, kidney disease, toxins, hypoxia, diabetes, and trauma.

Encephalopathy is not a single disease by itself, rather it's a group of disorders with several underlying causes.
  • Symptoms
  • High blood pressure


    Excessive thirst




    Poor memory

    or Lack of concentration


    Weight loss


    Decreased urine

    or Frequent urination


    Enlarged feet or ankle

    or Swelling in lower leg

    or Enlarged arms or hands




    Muscle cramps


    Decreased sexual desire


    Throwing up

    or Diarrhea

    or Feel like vomiting


    Poor appetite

    Itchy skin

    • Occurs or worsens at night

    • At back

    • At upper extremity, At scalp, At abdomen, At chest, At palms and soles, At lower extremity

    or Dry skin on legs or feet

    or Dry skin at neck

    or Dry skin on arms or hands

    Red eye

    Yellow eyes or skin

  • Risk factors
  • Kidney failure or on dialysis

    Diabetes mellitus

    • Type 1, Type 2

    Polycystic Kidney Disease

    High blood pressure disease

  • Treatment
  • Treatment of an encephalopathic patient is done by firstly identifying the underlying cause of encephalopathies and addressing it. This might include stopping some of your drugs or adding new drugs, changes in lifestyle and diet, and dialysis if the underlying cause is kidney disease.
  • Recommended specialist
  • If you have Encephalopathies, then a visit to a general internist as soon as possible.

    Contact a

    General internist

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